IoT Levels Explained: A Deep Dive into the Internet of Things Hierarchy

Author Image By Editorial Team

Last Updated: June 3, 2024

4 minutes

  • Facebook
  • twitter
  • linkedin


The utilization of Internet of Things (IoT) technology is expanding at an accelerated rate and has many different applications. It operates in accordance with the various application areas for which the Internet of Things has been built and developed. However, there is no standardized working architecture that is strictly adhered to universally.

In this blog, we’ll explore everything you need to know about IoT, how it works, various IoT levels, and more.

What Is IoT?

The internet of things, or IoT, is a network of connected objects that communicates with the cloud and other IoT devices to share data. IoT devices, which can include consumer goods and both digital and mechanical machinery, are often incorporated with technology such as sensors and software.

How does the Internet of Things work?

An IoT (Internet of Things) ecosystem is made up of web-enabled smart devices that gather, transmit, and act upon data they obtain from functional blocks of IoT and their surroundings using systems, which include CPUs, sensors, and communication hardware.

IoT Levels

An end-to-end Internet of Things system functions on six critical layers, which are necessary to understand fully. The roles of each of these seven tiers in an IoT system are listed here.

Level 1 -Sensors

Any IoT system starts with sensors and other data-collection devices. They are in charge of converting analog to digital signals and serving as the link between the physical and digital worlds. Many sensory devices, which may read characteristics like temperature, distance, position, humidity, and so on, include meters, sensors, probes, gauges, and actuators. Installed on endpoints, or items, these devices gather raw data representing the necessary parameters.

Level 2 – Sensors Network Gateway

In the IoT levels system, this layer is the first network layer. It is in charge of transferring data from the first layer’s sensors to the third layer’s gateways. Through a particular communication protocol with its own set of guidelines, syntax, semantics, and synchronization requirements, the data is transported from sensors to gateways.

Only when the transmission protocol is supported by the gateway and the sensors will the data transfer be possible. BLE, LoRaWAN, ZigBee, and Sigfox are a few popular protocols that are used to link sensors and gateways.

Level 3 – Gateway

Data aggregators called gateways gather information from sensors and transfer it to a backend system. In essence, they serve as an interface between the local sensor environment and the internet, much like routers or modems. They send information to a data-ingestion platform after gathering data from nearby sensors.

If the sensory equipment itself has a built-in gateway, or is otherwise able to transfer data across long distances on its own, then there is no need for gateways or sensor-to-gateway networks. The sensory device just needs to read the data and communicate it to the backend system in this scenario.

Level 4 – Gateway to Internet Network

This network makes it easier for data to be transmitted from the gateway to the internet or backend systems, just like the sensor to gateway network does. Data transmission to distant sites is made possible by the potential for this network to cover a large area. The protocols that are typically utilized for a network this size are satellite, cellphone, Ethernet, and Wi-Fi.

Level 5 -Ingestion of Data and Processing of Information

This layer of IoT levels transforms the unprocessed data from the preceding four layers into information that is useful. Most of the time, the data is retrieved through the backend system of a web or mobile application and kept in cloud storage. The user sees value-added information that has been processed by advanced analytics and other processing systems from the ingested data.

Level 6 – User Network to Internet

Any end-to-end Internet of Things solution ends with this network layer. This network retrieves the unprocessed data from the cloud system and presents it to the user on a screen with additional value. Internet, Ethernet, and Wi-Fi are the protocols that are typically used to access data from cloud storage systems.

For the entire Internet of Things system, this last layer in the physical design of IoT serves as the front end. Users are able to track the parameter related to the asset they wish to monitor by viewing the gathered data and value-added information on their screen. The information can be shown to the user as numbers, graphs, charts, or alerts, allowing them to gain insightful knowledge and make informed decisions.

Any smart device, like a desktop computer or smartphone, can access the data.


In Conclusion, Working on all these IoT layers and developing an all-inclusive IoT solution that suits everyone’s budget is obviously not an easy undertaking. Selecting protocols that can efficiently gather and transfer data between successive levels is fraught with difficulties. Furthermore, creating such an architecture may restrict the IoT solution’s capacity to grow properly and make it more inflexible.

Related Posts

Internet of Things | IoT Design Methodology And Its Importance 

Gain deeper insight into the CRM software and Internet of Things

Stay updated by signing up for our newsletter

Read our full Privacy Policy here.